Glossary Description
A AAA Authentication Authorization Accounting
ACL Access Control List
AFC Administrative Federation Committee
AFM Administrative Federation Meeting
AGM Architecture Group Member
ALICE LHC physic experiment
AliEn Grid for Alice experiment
AM Activity Manager
APEL EGEE/LCG Accounting Application
API Application Programming Interface
ARDA A Realisation of Distributed Analysis for LHC.In response to the recommendations of the report of the ARDA RTAG of November 2003, the LCG Project Execution Board agreed on the goals and organisation of a project to coordinate the activities to prototype distributed analysis systems for the LHC experiments using a grid.
ApGrid ApGrid is a partnership for Grid computing in the Asia Pacific region. ApGird is an open community encouraging collaboration and it is not restricted to just a few developed countries. As of the end of May 2004, 49 organizations from 14 countries were participating in ApGrid.
ATF Architecture Task Force (replaced by PTF)
ATLAS LHC physic experiment
ARCH Architecture Area.The Architecture Area hosts working and research groups that aim to define architectures for Grid computing. Architecture has been described as bakery, receiving high quality ingredients (ideas and strategies) from various sources, and in turn delivering a well baked concept. The architectural process involves selecting those design components that best fit together to create a balanced atheistic solution that meets the goals for which the architecture is intended.
Alliance A collaboration of small application communities that develops systems and runs on the persistent grid infrastructure.
AWG Application Working Group
B BaBar B and B-bar experiment
BAR Bandwidth Allocation and Reservation
BCU Biocomputing Unit
BDII Berkeley Database Information Index
BI Bio Informatics
BioMed Bio Medical VO
BMI Bio Medical Informatics
BioGrid Biogrid is conducting a trial for the introduction of the GRID approach in the biotechnology industry. The project is focusing on the integration of three existing technologies - agent technology, automatic model classificiation technology and knowledge visualisation technology - and the production of a working prototype biotechnology information GRID.
BLAST Basic Local Alignment SearchTool [3] is a widely used search algorithm that is used to compute alignments of nucleic acid or protein sequences with the goal of finding the n closest matches in a target data set. BLAST takes a heuristic (rule-of-thumb) approach to a computationally highly intensive problem and is one of the fastest sequence comparison algorithms available, yet it still requires significant computational resources. It doestherefore benefit from being run in a grid computing context.
BoilerMaker The BoilerMaker system developed at Argonne National Laboratory allows multiple users to collaborate on the design of emission control systems in industrial incinerators. The different users interact with each other and with a simulation of the incinerator. The simulation itself can be updated more quickly using the grid technology.
C CA Certification Authority
CA Consortium Agreement
CB Collaboration Board
CC Cost Claims
CDF Collider Detector Experiment at Fermilab
CE Compute Element
CERN CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research, the world's largest particle physics centre. Here physicists come to explore what matter is made of and what forces hold it together.
CHEP Computing in High Energy Physics
CIC Core Infrastructure Centrer
CIS Core Infrastructure Services
CM Cluster Manager
CMMi Capability Maturity Model Integration
CMS LHC physic experiment
COD CIC-on-duty
Compass Physics experiment at CERN
CRL Certificat Revocation List
CT Certification and Testing Team
CVS Concurrent Versions System
CyGRID Cyprus Grid
CIC Core Infrastructure Centres.CIC have two fundamental roles: to operate essential grid infrastructure services that are not required at each Resource Centre; and to act as a Grid Operations Centre providing monitoring and operational troubleshooting services. In addition they play a crucial role as second-level support to the ROCs for operational problems.
Cluster Computing Back in the last century,scientist put some PCs together and got them to communicate.This was the first cluster.Clusters can have different sizes. One of the big advantages of this approach is "scalability": a cluster can grow simply by adding new PCs to it. Of course there are limits, because somehow the computers have to communicate with each other, and this starts to get pretty hairy when there are many computers. But clusters of hundreds of computers are not uncommon nowadays.
Consumer Grids In a Consumer Grid, resources are shared on a commercial basis, rather than on the basis of goodwill or mutual self-interest. Companies or other organizations rent distributed resources, and the owners of these resources are paid for the computing power or data storage capacity they contribute, by a "middleman" in charge of the middleware.
Condor Condor is a Project to develop, implement, deploy, and evaluate mechanisms and policies that support High Throughput Computing (HTC) on large collections of distributively owned computing resources. Guided by both the technological and sociological challenges of such a computing environment, the Condor Team has been building software tools that enable scientists and engineers to increase their computing throughput.
D DataGrid DataGrid is a project funded by European Union. The objective is to build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases, from hundreds of TeraBytes to PetaBytes, across widely distributed scientific communities.
DataTAG The objective of DATATAG is to implement a network infrastructure for a truly high-speed interconnection between individual GRID domains both in Europe and the US.The project will incorporate the design and implementation of advanced network services for guaranteed data delivery, transport protocol optimisation, efficiency and reliability of network resource utilisation, user-perceived application performance and middleware interoperability across different domains.
D-CH German-Swiss Federation
D0 DØ Experiment
DAGS Directed Acyclic GraphS (work-flow software from CONDOR project)
DAIS Data Access and Integration Services
DCS Dynamic connectivity Service
DEISA Distributed European Infrastructure for Supercomputing Aplications
diffserv differentiated services
DN Distinguished Name
DoS Denial of Service
DPM Disk Pool Manager
Dteam Deployment team
Digital Archives To migrate an application for heterogeneous metadata management into a Grid service, DOREGrid has gained its early success in demostrating the feasibility of managing digital archives among virtual organizations.
DOREGrid DORE(DOcument REtrieval) is a middleware,library and tool,for programmers to develop metadata database application.To integrate different Metadata query system, we start a new project based on GT3 and
try to constrcut a appropriate framework to perform it. We have achieved integrating
existing DORE application and we still work on building new framework.
Distributed Computing Whenever there is a problem due to lack of computing power (a complicated calculation or an applications that require more computing power than a single computer can provide) the solution is to link computer resources from across a business, a company or an academic institution. The network of computer is then used as a single, unified resource.
DRM Disk Resource Manager (DRM) is what we typically call an SRM implementation on top of a disk system. A DRM is a component that controls the use of a shared disk cache in a data grid.
E e-IRGSP e-Infrastructure Reflection Group Support Project
EAC External Advisory Committee
EC European Commission
EDG European DataGrid
EDMS Engineering Data Management Service (Cern Document Management tool)
EELA Extending EGEE to Latin America
EGAAP EGEE Generic Application Advisory Panel
EGEE Enabling Grid for E-sciencE.The aim of EGEE project is to build on recnet advances in grid technology and develop a grid service infrastructure in European which is available to scientists 24 hours-a-day.
EGO European Grid Organisation
eIRG e-Infrastructure Reflection group
EIS Experiment Integration Structure
EL Enterprise Linux
EMBnet European Molecular Biology network
EMT Engineering Management Team
ENOC EGEE Network Operation Centre
EO Earth observation
ERA European Research Area
ESC EGEE Support Committee
ESR Earth Science research
ESUS Experiment Specific User Support
ETICS eInfrastructure for Testing, Integration and Configuration of Software
EU European Union
EUGridPMA European Grid Authentication policy management authority for e-science
EuroGrid The EUROGRID project is a shared cost Research and Technology Development project (RTD) granted by the European Commission (grant no. IST 1999-20247). It is part of the Information Society Technologies Programme (IST). The grant period is Nov 1, 2000 till Jan 31, 2004. The EUROGRID project will demonstrate the use of GRIDs in selected scientific and industrial communities, address the specific requirements of these communities, and highlight the benefits of using GRIDs.
F FAFNER Factoring via Network-Enabled Recursion,which was a project which aimed at factorizing very large numbers, a computationally intensive challenge which is very relevant to digital security. Since this is a challenge which can be broken into small parts, even fairly modest computers can contribute useful power.
FAQ Frequently asked questions
FCR Freedom of Choice tool
FR Federation representative
FR French federation
FTE Full Time Equivalent
FTS File Transfer System
Fabric With respect to grid computing, "fabric" refers to a "layer" of grid components (underneath applications, tools, and middleware). Fabric encompasses local resource managers (e.g., operating systems, queuing systems, device drivers, libraries, etc.), and networked resources (e.g., compute and storage resources, data sources, etc.). Grid applications use grid tools and middleware components to interact with the fabric.
FZK Karlsruhe
G Grid computing Connecting storage and data as well as CPUs from multiple systems into a centrally managed but flexible computing environment. True grid provides distributed resource management of heterogeneous systems.
GRID Whereas the Web is a service for sharing information over the Internet, the Grid is a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the Internet. The Grid goes well beyond simple communication between computers, and aims ultimately to turn the global network of computers into one vast computational resource.
gLite gLite (pronounced "gee-lite") is the next generation middleware for grid computing. Born from the collaborative efforts of more than 80 people in 11 different academic and industrial research centres as part of the EGEE Project, gLite provides a bleeding-edge, best-of-breed framework for building grid applications tapping into the power of distributed computing and storage resources across the Internet.
Globus Toolkit The open source Globus Toolkit is a fundamental enabling technology for the "Grid," letting people share computing power, databases, and other tools securely online across corporate, institutional, and geographic boundaries without sacrificing local autonomy.The toolkit includes software services and libraries for resource monitoring, discovery, and management, plus security and file management.
GRAM Globus Resource Allocation Manager, which figures out how to convert a request for resources into commands that local computers can understand.
GSI Grid Security Infrastructure, which provides authentication of the user and works out that person's access rights.
GRIS Grid Resource Information Service, to query resources for their current configuration, capabilities, and status.
GIIS Grid Index Information Service, which coordinates arbitrary GRIS services.
GridFTP GridFTP provides a high-performance, secure and robust data transfer mechanism.
Goodwill Grids Goodwill Grids are for anyone owning a computer at home who wants to donate some computer capacity to a good cause.
GridPP GridPP is a collaboration of particle physicists and computer scientists from the UK and CERN, who are building a computing Grid for particle physics.
GGF The Global Grid Forum (GGF) is a community-initiated forum of thousands of individuals from industry and research leading the global standardization effort for grid computing. GGF's primary objectives are to promote and support the development, deployment, and implementation of Grid technologies and applications via the creation and documentation of "best practices" - technical specifications, user experiences, and implementation guidelines.
GridPort Grid Portal Toolkit (GridPort) is a collection of technologies designed to aid in the development of science portals on computational grids: user portals, applications interfaces, and education portals. GridPort leverages standard, portable technologies to provide information services that portals can access and incorporate.
GOC Grid Operations Center. It functions as a central repository for configuration information regarding the network, storage and computing resources at all the grid sites. It also serves as a central monitoring point for operational activity at each site and among the sites.
H HEP High Energy Physics
HepCAL HEP Application Grid requirements
I I3 Integrated Infrastructure Initiative
IA64 Instruction Architecture-64
IAG Israeli Academy Grid
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (standardisation)
IF Industry Forum
ISO 9001 International Organization for Standardization: Quality assurance normalization
IST Information Society Technologies
IT Italian Federation
ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure Library
J JDL Job Description Language
JRA Joint Research Activity
JRA1 EGEE Middleware Re-engineering and Integration activity
JRA2 EGEE Quality Assurance activity
JRA3 EGEE Security activity
JRA4 EGEE Network Services development activity
JSPG Joint security policy group
K KA Karlsruhe
KCA Kerberized Certificate Authority
L L&B Logging and Bookkeeping software
LAN Local Area Network
LCG-0/1/2 LHC Computing Grid Middleware 0/1/2
LCG LHC Computing Grid
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LFC LCG File Catalog
LFN Logical File Name
LHC The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently being built at CERN near Geneva, is the largest scientific instrument on the planet. When it begins operations in 2007, it will produce roughly 15 Petabytes (15 million Gigabytes) of data annually, which thousands of scientists around the world will access and analyse.
LHcb LHC physic experiment
LCG The mission of the LHC Computing Project (LCG) is to build and maintain a data storage and analysis infrastructure for the entire high energy physics community that will use the LHC.
LRC LCG Resource Catalog
Legion Legion was a project started at the University of Virginia in 1993, which took a rather purist computer science approach to building a metacomputing environment. It was based on an object oriented approach, where everything (files, computers on the network etc.) is an object with specific access procedures, and fits into one giant virtual machine.
M mpiBLAST mpiBLAST is a freely available open source parallelization of NCBI BLAST. mpiBLAST segments the BLAST database and distributes it across cluster nodes, permitting BLAST queries to be processed on many nodes simultaneously. mpiBLAST is based on MPI. The current release runs under Linux and Windows, and will probably work on other varieties of Unix as well.
MDS Monitoring and Discovery Service, in order to collect information about resource.Such as processing capacity, bandwidth capacity, type of storage, etc.
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
MPI Message Passing Interface software
MSS Mass Storage System
MW Middleware
MyProxy MyProxy service: This service provides a credential repository so that users can be authenticated
Middleware Key to success of Grid computing is the development of the 'middleware', the software that organizes and integrates the disparate computational facilities belonging to a Grid. Its main role is to automate all the "machine to machine" (M2M) negotiations required to interlace the computing and storage resources and the network into a single, seamless computational "fabric".
Metadata A key ingredient for the middleware is metadata. This is essentially "data about data". Metadata plays a crucial role as they contain all information about, for example, how, when and by whom a particular set of data was collected, how the data is formatted, and where in the world it is stored - sometimes at several locations.
Metacomputing Metacomputing was a name coined for a particular type of distributed computing, very popular in the early 'nineties, which involved linking up supercomputer centers with what was, at the time, high speed networks.
N NA Networking Activity
NA1 EGEE Project Management activity
NA2 EGEE Dissemination and Outreach activity
NA3 EGEE User Training and Induction
NA4 EGEE application identification and support activity
NA5 EGEE International Cooperation activity
NE Northern Europe Federation
NEG Northern European Grid
NGIS National Grid Initiatives
NMI NSF Middleware Initiative (National Science Foundation)
NOC Network Operation Center
NPM Network Performance Monitoring
NREN National Research and Education Network
NICE The NICE system developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago allows children to participate in the creation and maintenance of realistic virtual worlds, for entertainment and education. Again, by distributing these virtual world simulations on a Grid, more users can benefit from the system.
National Grids The idea behind National Grids is to couple high-end resources across a nation. This will provide a strategic "computing reserve" and will allow substantial computing resources to be applied to large problems in times of crisis, such as to plan responses to a major environmental disaster, earthquake, or terrorist attack. Furthermore, such a Grid will act as a "national collaboratory", supporting collaborative investigations of complex scientific and engineering problems, such as global climate change, space station design, and environmental cleanup.
Nimrod Nimrod is a tool that manages the execution of parametric studies across distributed computers. It takes responsibility for the overall management of an experiment, as well as the low-level issues of distributing files to remote systems, performing the remote computation and gathering the results.
O OAG Operation Advisory Group
OCC Operations Coordination Centre
OGSA Open Grid Services Architecture
OGSI Open Grid Services Infrastructure.OGSI refers to the base infrastructure on which OGSA is built. At its core is the "Grid Service Specification", which defines the standard interfaces and behaviors of a Grid service, building on a Web services base.
OMC Operation Management Center
OMII Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute
Oracle Data base management system
OSCT Operational Security Coordination Team
OSI Open Science Grid
OGSA-DAI Open Grid Service Architecture Data Access and Integraton.The OGSA-DAI project is concerned with constructing middleware to assist with access and integration of data from separate data sources via the grid. It is engaged in identifying the requirements, designing solutions and delivering software that will meet this purpose.
OSG The OSG federate many of the currently disjoint grid resources at U.S. labs and universities. The goal is to iteratively build and extend existing grids, such as Grid2003, to enable the use of common grid infrastructure and shared resources for the benefit of scientific applications.
Openlab The CERN Openlab is a collaboration between CERN and industrial partners to develop data-intensive Grid technologies to be used by the worldwide community of scientists working at the next-generation Large Hadron Collider. These experiments will generate enormous amounts of data, several million gigabytes a year, and will require a computing environment thousands of times more powerful and functional than anything running on today's Internet.
P PBS Product breakdown structure
PD Project Director
PDG Protein Design Group
PEB Project Execution Board
PIC Policy and International Cooperation
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PM x Person Month / Project Month x
PMA Policy Management Authority
PMB Project Management Board
PO Project Office
POOL HEP software
PPS Pre-Production Service
PPT Project Progress Tracking tool
PR EU Periodic Reports
PR Public Relations
PROOF HEP software
PS Production Service Environment
PTD Project Technical Director
PTF Project Technical Forum
PRAGMA Pacific Rim Applications
and Grid Middleware Assembly.PRAGMA has been founded as an open organization in which Pacific Rim institutions will collaborate more formally to develop grid-enabled applications and will deploy the needed infrastructure throughout the Pacific Region to allow data, computing, and other resource sharing. Based on current collaborations, PRAGMA will enhance these collaborations and connections among individual investigators by promoting visiting scholars' and engineers' programs, building new collaborations, formalizing resource-sharing agreements, and continuing trans-Pacific network deployment.
Peer to Peer Computing By downloading a piece of software onto your hard drive, you could connect to a network of other users who have downloaded the same software. Users only had to specify which information on their hard drive was public, and could access what others had made public.In this way, computers can share files and other data directly, without going through a central server.
Private Grids Private Grids (sometimes called local-Grids or intra-Grids) can be useful in many institutions (hospitals, corporations, small firms, etc). They are characterized by a relatively small scale, central management and common purpose and, in most cases, they will probably need to integrate low-cost commodity technologies.
Project Grids Project Grids will likely be created to meet the needs of a variety of multi-institutional research groups and multi-company "virtual teams", to pursue short- or medium-term projects (scientific collaborations, engineering projects). A Project Grid will typically be built from shared resources for a limited time, and focus on a specific goal. Typically, this is something a self-motivated team could set up, without need to apply to any major Public Grid infrastructure for permission.
Q QA Quality Assurance
QAG Quality Assurance Group
QAM Quality Assurance Management
QAR Quality Assurance Representative
QI Quality Indicator
QoS Quality Of Services
QR EU Quarterly Report
QUATTOR Optimisation Toolkit for Optimising Resources
R R-GMA Relational-Grid Monitoring Architecture
RAID Redundant array of inexpensive disks
RB Resource Broker
RBAC Rules Based Access Control
RC Resource Center
RDIG Russian Data Intensive Grid
Remedy Problem tracking software for helpdesks
RH Red Hat
RLS Replica Location Service
RM Release Manager
ROC Regional Operations Centres.ROCs are the heart of the operational support for the grid infrastructure. They have a key role as sources of expert advice and technical support in the process of building and operating the infrastructure. The ROCs will have the expertise to assist the growing number of Resource Centres in joining the infrastructure, through the deployment of middleware releases and the development of procedures and capabilities to operate those resources. The development of deployment procedures and documentation will require some effort, and each initial deployment at a new Resource Centre will require close support, including on-site assistance where required. This support is provided by the ROC team.
RoGRID Romanian GRID
RPM RPM package Manager
RSS Really Simple Syndication
RTAG Requirements Technical Assessment Group
RU Russian federation
Replica Catalog Replica Catalog, a catalog that allows other Globus tools to look up where on the Grid other replicas of a given dataset can be found.
Replica Management system Replica Management system, which ties together the Replica Catalog and GridFTP technologies, allowing applications to create and manage replicas of large datasets.
S SA Specific Service Activity
SA1 EGEE European Grid Support, Operation and Management activity
SA2 EGEE Network Resource Provision activity
SA3 Integration & Testing activity within EGEE II
SCG Security Coordination Group
SCM Software Configuration Management
SE Storage Element
SEAL HEP software
SEE South East Europe
SEEGRID South East Grid e-Infrastructure Development
SEEREN South East European Research Networking
SFT Site Functional Test
SGM Security Group Member
SIMBA Cern Mailing list management tool
SIPS Site Integrated Proxy Services
SL Scientific Linux
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLOC Software Lines Of Code (number of)
SLR Service Level Request
SLS Service Level Specification
SM Software manager
SOA Service Oriented Architecture
SPI Cern Software Process Infrastructure
SRB The Storage Resource Broker is a client-server based middleware implemented at San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to provide distributed clients with uniform access to different types of storage devices, diverse storage resources, and replicated data sets in a heterogeneous computing environment.The SRB is a middleware for data grid solution, which could virtualize resource access, mediate access to distributed heterogeneous resources, use a MetaCATalog to facilitate the brokering, and integrates data and metadata.
SRM Scheduling and Resource Management.Generate best practice scheduling and resource management documents, protocols, and API specifications to enable interoperability.
SSA Special Support Action
SU Support unit
SURL Storage Uniform Resource Location
SuSE Linux distribution
SW Software
SW South West Europe Federation
SweGrid Swedish national Grid resource for science and research
SETI@home SETI@home ("SETI at home") is a distributed computing project for Internet-connected home computers, hosted by the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States.SETI@home's purpose is to analyze data incoming from the Arecibo radio telescope, searching for possible evidence of radio transmissions from extraterrestrial intelligence. With over five million users worldwide, the project is the most successful example of distributed computing to date.
T TA Technical Annex
TAB Technical Advisory Board
TCG Technical Coordination Group
TD Technical Director
TNLC Technical Network Liaison Committee
TPM Ticket Process Management
TT Trouble Ticket
TeraGrid TeraGrid is a effort to build and deploy the world's largest, most comprehensive, distributed infrastructure for open scientific research.By 2004, the TeraGrid will include 20 teraflops of computing power distributed at nine sites, facilities capable of managing and storing nearly 1 petabyte of data, high-resolution visualization environments, and toolkits for grid computing.
U UF Users Forum
UIG User Information Group
UK-I UK-Ireland federation
UML Unified Modelling Language
UoW University of Wisconsin/Madison
US United States of America
V VV Verification and Validation activity
VDT Virtual Data Toolkit
VO Current grid development projects are being designed such that they require end users to be authenticated under the auspices of a "recognized" organization, called a Virtual Organization (VO). A VO must establish resource-usage agreements with grid resource providers. The VO is responsible for authorizing its members for grid computing privileges. The individual sites and resources typically enforce additional layers of authorization.
VOMS VO Management Service
W WAN Wide Area Network
WBS Work breakdown structure
WCIT World Congress on Information Technology
WLM WorkLoad Management software
WMS Workload Management System
WN Worker Node
WS Web Server
WSRF Web Services Resource Framework
X XML eXtensible Markup Language
Y YAIM Yet Another Installation Method